How Exactly Do You Catch Covid-19?

This was on my Facebook. It’s possible to see some infractions to the COVID-19 quarantine just in the first picture below. One of my cousins’ friends and her family did everything that the quarantine stated should be done. The Wife/Mother ended up with COVID-19 and her husband and children had to go someplace else while the Wife/Mother recuperated. Luckily she did get better and nobody else came down with the COVID-19 in her family.

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How Exactly Do You Catch Covid-19? There Is a Growing Consensus

Surface contamination and fleeting encounters are less of a worry than close-up, person-to-person interactions for extended periods

How Exactly Do You Catch Covid-19? There Is a Growing Consensus

Six months into the coronavirus crisis, there’s a growing consensus about a central question: How do people become infected?

It’s not common to contract Covid-19 from a contaminated surface, scientists say. And fleeting encounters with people outdoors are unlikely to spread the coronavirus.

Instead, the major culprit is close-up, person-to-person interactions for extended periods. Crowded events, poorly ventilated areas and places where people are talking loudly—or singing, in one famous case—maximize the risk.

These emerging findings are helping businesses and governments devise reopening strategies to protect public health while getting economies going again. That includes tactics like installing Plexiglas barriers, requiring people to wear masks in stores and other venues, using good ventilation systems and keeping windows open when possible.

Two recent large studies showed that wide-scale lockdowns—stay-at-home orders, bans on large gatherings and business closures—prevented millions of infections and deaths around the world. Now, with more knowledge in hand, cities and states can deploy targeted interventions to keep the virus from taking off again, scientists and public-health experts said.

That means better protections for nursing-home residents and multigenerational families living in crowded conditions, they said. It also means stressing physical distancing and masks, and reducing the number of gatherings in enclosed spaces.

“We should not be thinking of a lockdown, but of ways to increase physical distance,” said Tom Frieden, chief executive of Resolve to Save Lives, a nonprofit public-health initiative. “This can include allowing outside activities, allowing walking or cycling to an office with people all physically distant, curbside pickup from stores, and other innovative methods that can facilitate resumption of economic activity without a rekindling of the outbreak.”

The group’s reopening recommendations include widespread testing, contact tracing and isolation of people who are infected or exposed.

A Recipe for Infection

Getting the Covid-19 virus involves three steps.

1

Coughing, talking and breathing creates virus-carrying droplets of various sizes.

2

Enough virus has to make itself over to you or build up around you over time to trigger an infection.

3

The virus has to make its way into your respiratory tract and use the ACE-2 receptors there to enter cells and replicate.

VIRUS

CELL

ACE-2

Illustration: Erik Brynildsen/THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

One important factor in transmission is that seemingly benign activities like speaking and breathing produce respiratory bits of varying sizes that can disperse along air currents and potentially infect people nearby.

Health agencies have so far identified respiratory-droplet contact as the major mode of Covid-19 transmission. These large fluid droplets can transfer virus from one person to another if they land on the eyes, nose or mouth. But they tend to fall to the ground or on other surfaces pretty quickly.

Some researchers say the new coronavirus can also be transmitted through aerosols, or minuscule droplets that float in the air longer than large droplets. These aerosols can be directly inhaled.

That’s what may have happened at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, where an infected diner who was not yet ill transmitted the virus to five others sitting at adjacent tables. Ventilation in the space was poor, with exhaust fans turned off, according to one study looking at conditions in the restaurant.

Aerosolized virus from the patient’s breathing or speaking could have built up in the air over time and strong airflow from an air-conditioning unit on the wall may have helped recirculate the particles in the air, according to authors of the study, which hasn’t yet been peer-reviewed.

Sufficient ventilation in the places people visit and work is very important, said Yuguo Li, one of the authors and an engineering professor at the University of Hong Kong. Proper ventilation—such as forcing air toward the ceiling and pumping it outside, or bringing fresh air into a room—dilutes the amount of virus in a space, lowering the risk of infection.

A gym in Chino Hills, Calif., on June 12.

PHOTO: WILL LESTER/ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER/ZUMA PRESS

Another factor is prolonged exposure. That’s generally defined as 15 minutes or more of unprotected contact with someone less than 6 feet away, said John Brooks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s chief medical officer for the Covid-19 response. But that is only a rule of thumb, he cautioned. It could take much less time with a sneeze in the face or other intimate contact where a lot of respiratory droplets are emitted, he said.

Superspreaders

At a March 10 church choir practice in Washington state, 87% of attendees were infected, said Lea Hamner, an epidemiologist with the Skagit County public-health department and lead author of a study on an investigation that warned about the potential for “superspreader” events, in which one or a small number of people infect many others.

Members of the choir changed places four times during the 2½-hour practice, were tightly packed in a confined space and were mostly older and therefore more vulnerable to illness, she said. All told, 53 of 61 attendees at the practice were infected, including at least one person who had symptoms. Two died.

Several factors conspired, Ms. Hamner said. When singing, people can emit many large and small respiratory particles. Singers also breathe deeply, increasing the chance they will inhale infectious particles.

Similar transmission dynamics could be at play in other settings where heavy breathing and loud talking are common over extended periods, like gyms, musical or theater performances, conferences, weddings and birthday parties. Of 61 clusters of cases in Japan between Jan. 15 and April 4, many involved heavy breathing in close proximity, such as karaoke parties, cheering at clubs, talking in bars and exercising in gyms, according to a recent study in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.

The so-called attack rate—the percentage of people who were infected in a specific place or time—can be very high in crowded events, homes and other spaces where lots of people are in close, prolonged contact.

An estimated 10% of people with Covid-19 are responsible for about 80% of transmissions, according to a study published recently in Wellcome Open Research. Some people with the virus may have a higher viral load, or produce more droplets when they breathe or speak, or be in a confined space with many people and bad ventilation when they’re at their most infectious point in their illness, said Jamie Lloyd-Smith, a University of California, Los Angeles professor who studies the ecology of infectious diseases.

But overall, “the risk of a given infected person transmitting to people is pretty low,” said Scott Dowell, a deputy director overseeing the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Covid-19 response. “For every superspreading event you have a lot of times when nobody gets infected.”

The attack rate for Covid-19 in households ranges between 4.6% and 19.3%, according to several studies. It was higher for spouses, at 27.8%, than for other household members, at 17.3%, in one study in China.

Rosanna Diaz with her son Tomas.

PHOTO: ROSANNA DIAZ

Rosanna Diaz lives in a three-bedroom apartment in New York City with five other family members. The 37-year-old stay-at-home mother was hospitalized with a stroke on April 18 that her doctors attributed to Covid-19, and was still coughing when she went home two days later.

She pushed to get home quickly, she said, because her 4-year-old son has autism and needed her. She kept her distance from family members, covered her mouth when coughing and washed her hands frequently. No one else in the apartment has fallen ill, she said. “Nobody went near me when I was sick,” she said.

Being outside is generally safer, experts say, because viral particles dilute more quickly. But small and large droplets pose a risk even outdoors, when people are in close, prolonged contact, said Linsey Marr, a Virginia Tech environmental engineering professor who studies airborne transmission of viruses.

No one knows for sure how much virus it takes for someone to become infected, but recent studies offer some clues. In one small study published recently in the journal Nature, researchers were unable to culture live coronavirus if a patient’s throat swab or milliliter of sputum contained less than one million copies of viral RNA.

What to Expect When Flying Now (and in the Future)
What to Expect When Flying Now (and in the Future)

What to Expect When Flying Now (and in the Future)
Air travel is full of opportunities for coronavirus transmission. Touchless check-in, plexiglass shields, temperature checks, back-to-front boarding and planes with empty middle seats are all now part of the flying experience, and the future may bring even more changes. Illustration: Alex Kuzoian

“Based on our experiment, I would assume that something above that number would be required for infectivity,” said Clemens Wendtner, one of the study’s lead authors and head of the department of infectious diseases and tropical medicine at München Klinik Schwabing, a teaching hospital at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.

He and his colleagues found samples from contagious patients with virus levels up to 1,000 times that, which could help explain why the virus is so infectious in the right conditions: It may take much lower levels of virus than what’s found in a sick patient to infect someone else.

Changing policies

Based on this emerging picture of contagion, some policies are changing. The standard procedure for someone who tests positive is to quarantine at home. Some cities are providing free temporary housing and social services where people who are infected can stay on a voluntary basis, to avoid transmitting the virus to family members.

The CDC recently urged Americans to keep wearing masks and maintaining a distance from others as states reopen. “The more closely you interact with others, the longer the interaction lasts, the greater the number of people involved in the interaction, the higher the risk of Covid-19 spread,” said Jay Butler, the CDC’s Covid-19 response incident manager.

If the number of Covid-19 cases starts to rise dramatically as states reopen, “more extensive mitigation efforts such as what were implemented back in March may be needed again,” a decision that would be made locally, he said.

CDC guidelines for employers whose workers are returning include requiring masks, limiting use of public transit and elevators to reduce exposure, and prohibiting hugs, handshakes and fist-bumps. The agency also suggested replacing communal snacks, water coolers and coffee pots with prepacked, single-serve items, and erecting plastic partitions between desks closer than 6 feet apart.

A crowd gathered at a bar in Columbus, Ohio, on May 15.

PHOTO: DORAL CHENOWETH/THE COLUMBUS DISPATCH/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Current CDC workplace guidelines don’t talk about distribution of aerosols, or small particles, in a room, said Lisa Brosseau, a respiratory-protection consultant for the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy.

“Aerosol transmission is a scary thing,” she said. “That’s an exposure that’s hard to manage and it’s invisible.” Ensuring infected individuals stay home is important, she said, but that can be difficult due to testing constraints. So additional protocols to interrupt spread, like social distancing in workspaces and providing N95 respirators or other personal protective equipment, might be necessary as well, she said.

Some scientists say while aerosol transmission does occur, it doesn’t explain most infections. In addition, the virus doesn’t appear to spread widely through the air.

“If this were transmitted mainly like measles or tuberculosis, where infectious virus lingered in the airspace for a long time, or spread across large airspaces or through air-handling systems, I think you would be seeing a lot more people infected,” said the CDC’s Dr. Brooks.

SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS

What public-health measures do you think are called for? Join the conversation below.

Sampling the air in high-traffic areas regularly could help employers figure out who needs to get tested, said Donald Milton, professor of environmental and occupational health at the University of Maryland School of Public Health.

“Let’s say you detect the virus during lunchtime on Monday in a dining hall,” he said. “You could then reach out to people who were there during that time telling them that they need to get tested.”

Erin Bromage, a University of Massachusetts Dartmouth associate professor of biology, has been fielding questions from businesses, court systems and even therapists after a blog post he wrote titled “The Risks—Know Them—Avoid Them” went viral.

Courts are trying to figure out how to reconvene safely given that juries normally sit close together, with attorneys speaking to them up close, Dr. Bromage said. Therapists want to be able to hold in-person counseling sessions again. And businesses are trying to figure out what types of cleaning and disease-prevention methods in which to invest most heavily.

He advises that while wiping down surfaces and putting in hand-sanitizer stations in workplaces is good, the bigger risks are close-range face-to-face interactions, and having lots of people in an enclosed space for long periods. High-touch surfaces like doorknobs are a risk, but the virus degrades quickly so other surfaces like cardboard boxes are less worrisome, he said. “Surfaces and cleaning are important, but we shouldn’t be spending half of our budget on it when they may be having only a smaller effect,” he said.

Plexiglass dividers at the Bellagio Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas on June 4.

PHOTO: JOE BUGLEWICZ/BLOOMBERG NEWS

Drugmaker Eli Lilly & Co. has a medical advisory panel that’s reading the latest literature on viral transmission, which it is using to develop recommendations for bringing back the company’s own workers safely.

To go into production facilities, some of which are in operation now, scientists must don multiple layers of personal protective equipment, including gloves, masks, goggles and coveralls. That’s not abnormal for drug-development settings, said Lilly Chief Scientific Officer Daniel Skovronsky. “The air is extensively filtered. There’s lots of protection,” he said.

The places he worries about are the break rooms, locker rooms and security checkpoints, where people interact. Those are spaces where the company has instituted social-distancing measures by staggering the times they are open and how many people can be there at once. Only a few cafeterias are open, and those that are have socially distanced seating. In bathrooms, only half the stalls are available to cut down on the number of people.

“We’ll never be more open than state guidelines,” Dr. Skovronsky said, but “we’re often finding ourselves being more restrictive because we’re following the numbers.”

Write to Daniela Hernandez at daniela.hernandez@wsj.com, Sarah Toy at sarah.toy@wsj.com and Betsy McKay at betsy.mckay@wsj.com

Problems That You Will Have In Produce Section

This was on my Facebook. I can only imagine the problems that this is causing. One thing is for sure, I wouldn’t lick my fingers either, under the circumstances.But there was a good suggestion by one of my Facebook viewers. The suggestion was to go to the produce that has to be watered first ans then your fingers will get wet and you will be able to open the produce bags to put the produce in them to be weighed and priced.

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Google – Bible Verse Images

This was on Facebook. It is just one of many on Google.com, Bible Verse Images .com. These are beautiful. But there is not enough room to show them all. I am sure that many more will end up on this website from time to time.

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Somethings To Really Think About

This was on Facebook today. One of my nieces saw this and copied it and then posted it. Today was her 35th birthday. This is a pretty long article, but I can only imagine that there is something or some things in this that you can relate to. Some of them may be things that you will strive to be able to do in the future, some may be things you will want to stop doing. No matter how they touch you, you will be touched in one way or another. I am in my late 60’s and found many things in this that have touched me. Hope it speaks to you, and helps you in some way or another.

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Saw this on a friend’s page and it spoke to me so much… so today, I am reminding myself that I’m a lot, but I’m not too much.

I’m a lot.

I am.

I know I am.

I’ve always known I am.

I get over-the-top excited about mundane things. I get overly-emotional about mundane things as well.

I have ten thousand ideas flowing rapidly through my brain at any one point in time.

I think fast. I speak fast. I type even faster.

I sing at the top of my lungs whether I’m in church, or sitting alone in my car. I think the world is falling, and then realize maybe I just haven’t had any sleep the last two nights, and I need a glass of water, and everything appears sunny again.

I send ten text messages in a row. And, oh yes, you’d better believe they are full of exclamation points and emojis. I plan girls’ trips at the drop of a hat. I work really hard to make everything magical.

I apologize all the time.

I talk way too much.

I take up too much space.

I dance anytime music is on—grocery store, car, bank, doesn’t matter.

I build businesses and then new businesses and new businesses.

I see clothes that I absolutely HAVE to have. I think every movie I’ve ever watched is the “best ever.” I like every song that comes on the radio, and I rave about them, and I research the lyrics and try to figure out the deeper-meaning. I cry about situations, and then turn around with my next breath and flip the switch and find the ever-elusive silver lining.

I’m a lot.

I’m passionate.

I rarely walk.

When I’m chill, I’m chill.

But when I’m not—watch out, sister.

I don’t tiptoe. I jump in without looking back. And I splash water everywhere. I have energy, and I like for energy to be given back to me.

I used to hate this about myself. Everything I just mentioned made me blame myself, and question myself, and want to be by myself, and also somehow, made me want to be with everyone all the time.

I used to think being too much was my worst quality. I thought it was the reason I was misunderstood and lonely. I thought it was my greatest setback.

And so I quieted myself up.

I played small.

I bottled my excitement.

I convinced myself to become less.

BUT I WAS NOT MADE TO BE LESS.

I am too much, but it’s not my kryptonite. It’s what makes me dynamite.

I give hard. I forgive hard. I work hard. I laugh hard. I cry hard. I mess up hard, but then I get back up and I keep on moving forward.

I dream hard. I believe hard.

I live fierce. And I love free.

There is nothing wrong with that.

There is nothing wrong with meeting someone and instantly clicking with them. There is nothing wrong with telling people how much you love them. There is nothing wrong with laughing and crying and feeling other people’s pain.

If your’e an “a lot” person like I am. If you bounce around from place to place. If it takes a while for you to settle down, and you lie in bed at night wondering what in the world is wrong with you, and oh-my-gosh why did you say “you too” when the waiter told you to enjoy your meal. That’s such an odd thing to say.

It’s okay.
You’re okay.
It’s going to be okay.

Stop beating yourself up. Stop with the constant worrying that people won’t like you, and start liking yourself.

Cause, yeah, you’re a lot.

You’re a lot of love.
You’re a lot of joy.
You’re a lot of beautiful.

You’re a lot of real.
You’re a lot of passionate.
You’re a lot of empathetic.

You’re a lot of what makes a good friend.

And you’re also a lot of what this world needs. Don’t hide, sister. Don’t shy away. Don’t back down. Don’t try to be someone else. Don’t shrug off your gifts.

Don’t change. Ever.

But do breathe, and do at least try to be more on time.

Love Your Mother

This was on Facebook. This notice is so correct, but it goes for every person you are kin to, every person that you love, every person that makes you happy, in other words everybody you know. Life is short. Live it to the fullest. Once the light that belongs to anybody that you know, goes out, it goes out for ever.

There are some other people that tell me that I say “I love you.” to too many people and that I say it too much. It is my personal belief that every time you talk to one of the people that you love, you should end by saying, “I love you.” even before saying “Good Bye.” And if it’s someone you love quite a bit, it isn’t wrong to say, “I love you more than you know.” I do this most of the time when I just make comments on their Facebook posts.

You may be wondering why I do this. The answer is that NOBODY, AND I MEAN NOBODY, BUT GOD, KNOWS WHEN YOU’RE GOING TO DIE.

At this point in my life, I am in my late 60’s, and all of my Great Aunts and Great Uncles are deceased, and all of my Uncles on my Mother’s side are deceased. I’m not too sure about my Father’s side. My Father is also deceased. There have also been numerous, too many to count, friends that are deceased. All of the rest of my family lives in different states.

I have lived where I am for 46 years. There is no way to say an exact number of times that I have heard different friends, and even strangers, say after someone’s passing, “I should have told him/her how much I loved him/her.” Some of the times the statement did not have the words “how much”, but just “that I loved him/her.” (at all), “years ago”. After hearing it so much, I reached a point that I said to myself, “I don’t care how much they get annoyed with it, I’m going to at least try to let “whomever”  know that I love them.

When I am told that I say “I love you” too much, I slow it down a little, but still never quit saying it to them. Saying “I love you.” is so important to me, that I even say it in my sleep. Once the person’s light goes out, it will never come back on, so my advice to everybody is that if you love somebody. let them know it. Even if you are angry with each other, swallow your pride and let them know. Even if they get upset with you again, at least you will go to bed with a clear conscience knowing that you told them, even if they did not say it back. You will go to sleep feeling good about it, instead of thinking “if (whomever) dies tonight, or if I die tonight, I know that I told the ones that I love, that I do love them, and not to forget it.

Here I will say, I’m sorry for repeating the same thing in so many different ways, but at least you can tell just how important this is to me, and hopefully now it is to you too.

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Image may contain: text that says 'A mother is like a shooting star who passes through your life only once. Love her dearly, because when her light goes out you will never see her again. Do you miss you mom?'

I miss her every day.

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Special Grandmother’s Pillow For Granddaughter

This was on Facebook. I think it is so sweet and any granddaughter will most likely very reluctantly let it go if they absolutely have to. Otherwise, it will go with them every where they go.

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A special gift for Granddaughter.
💞 Order here: https://www.moonchildtee.com/to-my-granddaughter-pillow…
Visit our store: https://www.moonchildtee.com/stores/grandchild
Get her this meaningful gift and melt her heart.

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Old-timer’s Situations

This was from Facebook.

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Image may contain: 1 person, food, text that says 'What do you have with no fat and no sugar? Napkins'

Oldtimers
Community
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When you are on a diet, and you go into a bakery, this is the reply you may receive if you actually did ask that question. I can picture it in my mind now. But, I guess it could have been worse. The lady behind the counter could have said, “I’ll fill a bag with our sweet smelling air, and you can imagine you are about to eat one of the goodies, that you can’t have on a diet.”

Another Beautifully Colored Bird

This is from Facebook. Unfortunately there was no type of bird mentioned for what bird this is.

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Dee YoungFollow

Why this Bird looks like it’s about to drop the hardest mixtape of all time 😂🔥💯

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It’s a beautifully colored bird. I just don’t know what it’s name is. It’s still so amazing to me that all of these birds and insects, that are so strangely colored and/or formed, are showing up at this time, when the quarantine is going on. I feel like God is trying to tell us that He is still here. And proving it by showing us these beautiful creations of his.

Possibly someone that is friends with me on Facebook may post this bird’s name, when they see me mentioning that I don’t know what kind of bird this is.

Easy DIY To Keep Wasps And Wood-bees Away

This is from Facebook.

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Jeanie Jones

Day 3 and NO wasps Or wood bees on our porch. Just a brown paper sack and I put plastic bags to fluff it out. Suppose to mimic a Hornets nest. Seems to be working.

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If any Wasps or Wood bees show up around where I live, I’ll have to try this out.

 

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Dee YoungFollow

Why this Bird looks like it’s about to drop the hardest mixtape of all time 😂🔥💯

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The Many Uses Of Peroxide

This came from Facebook, on Kelly Bagnasco’s page.

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No photo description available.

Kelly Bagnasco

Who knew?

The many uses of Peroxide 🤔

My friend has a friend who’s dad is a doctor. She was over recently and smelled the bleach, I was using to clean my toilet and counter tops.

This is what I learned that day:
She says, ‘I would like to tell you all of the benefits of that plain little ole bottle of 3% peroxide you can get for under $1.00 at any drugstore. What does bleach cost?

Most doctors don’t tell you about peroxide.

Have you ever smelled bleach in a doctor’s office? NO!!! Why? Because it smells, and it is not healthy!

Ask the nurses who work in the doctor’s offices, and ask them if they use bleach at home. They are wiser and know better!

Did you also know bleach was invented in the late ’40s? It’s chlorine, folks! And it was used to kill our troops.

Peroxide was invented during WWI.. It was used to save and help cleanse the needs of our troops and hospitals.

Please think about this:

1. Take one capful of hydrogen peroxide (the little white cap that comes with the bottle) and hold in your mouth for 10 minutes daily, then spit it out. (I am doing it when I bathe.) No more canker sores, and your teeth will be whiter without expensive pastes. Use it instead of mouthwash.

2. Let your toothbrushes soak in a cup of peroxide to keep them free of germs.

3. Clean your counters and table tops with peroxide to kill germs and leave a fresh smell. Simply put a little on your dishrag when you wipe, or spray it on the counters.

4. After rinsing off your wooden cutting board, pour peroxide on it to kill salmonella and other bacteria.

5. If you have fungus on your feet spray a 50/50 mixture of peroxide and water on them (especially the toes) every night and let dry.

6. Soak cuts in 3% peroxide for a few minutes several times a day to prevent infections. .

7. Fill a spray bottle with a 50/50 mixture of peroxide and water and keep it in every bathroom to disinfect without harming your septic system like bleach or most other disinfectants will.

8. Tilt your head back and spray into nostrils with your 50/50 mixture whenever you have a cold or plugged sinus. It will bubble and help to kill the bacteria. Hold for a few minutes, and then blow your nose into a tissue.

9. If you have a terrible toothache and cannot get to a dentist right away, put a capful of 3% peroxide into your mouth and hold it for 10 minutes several times a day. The pain will lessen greatly.

10. And of course, if you like a natural look to your hair, spray the 50/50 solution on your wet hair after a shower and comb it through. You will not have the peroxide-burnt blonde hair like the hair dye packages but more natural highlights if your hair is a light brown, reddish, or dirty blonde. It also lightens gradually, so it’s not a drastic change.

11. Put half a bottle of peroxide in your bath to help get rid of boils, fungus, or other skin infections.

12. You can also add a cup of peroxide instead of bleach to a load of whites in your laundry to whiten them. If there is blood on clothing, pour it directly on the soiled spot. Let it sit for a minute, then rub it and rinse with cold water. Repeat if necessary.

13. I use peroxide to clean my mirrors. There is no smearing, which is why I love it so much for this.

14. Another place it’s great is in the bathroom, if someone has been careless, has peed on the floor around the toilet, and it’s begun to smell of urine. Just put some peroxide in a spray bottle spray. In the blink of an eye all the smell will be gone and the bacteria eliminated! (I wish I’d known this years ago)

I could go on and on. It is a little brown bottle no home should be without! With prices of most necessities rising, I’m glad there’s a way to save tons of money in such a simple, healthy manner!

This information really woke me up. I hope you gain something from it, too. 😁

Pass it on! Clorox v/s peroxide VERY interesting and inexpensive.

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